England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain. The capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and Europe, with 9.8 Million people living in Greater London. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. There is upland and mountainous terrain in the north, eg the Lake District and Pennines, and in the west, eg Dartmoor and the Shropshire Hills. The climate is temperate maritime, mild with temperatures not much lower than 0 °C in winter and not much higher than 32 °C in summer.
The geology of England is mainly sedimentary. The youngest rocks are in the south east around London, progressing in age in a north westerly direction. Wide areas are covered by almost horizontal sedimentary layers which form a series of escarpments. There are numerous karstified limestone areas with caves. Layers with coal seams and iron deposits were the basis for the industrial revolution. The sometimes long and complicated geologic history resulted in virtually any kind of natural resources. There is a long mining history, though most deposits are not profitable under current conditions.