Berkshire is located in the west of London, around Reading and Windsor, and divides into two clearly distinct sections. The eastern section is dominated by the River Thames, with mainly flood plains. These plains are not very suitable for underground structures, neither natural nor artificial. The western portion of the county is situated around the valley of the River Kennet, which joins the Thames in Reading.

The river plains are surrounded by many hilly areas with small and well-wooded valleys. Walbury Hill (297 m asl.) is the highest point in South East England.

The rocks are mostly chalk, which is not very suitable for the development of caves, although it karstifies very well. It contains only small caves. The fact that a natural chalk cave system at Warren Row in Berkshire has been discovered is rather unusual.

Swallets or swallow holes are rather common. There are several chalk mines, open pit and underground. Subterranea Britannica lists a single chalk mine in Reading, which is not open to the public.