The Lower Silesian Voivodeship lies in south-western Poland and is roughly the same area as Niederschlesien (Lower Silesia), an area which was German until the end of World War II and still has many places with two names, German and Polish. The northern part are lowlands, the southern part is formed by the Sudeten or Sudety, the Sudetes mountain range running along the Polish/Czech border.
The mountains consist mostly of insoluble rocks, only a small area of marble, 15km² in size, forms a so-called island karst. More than 70 caves are registered in the area. The area is important for the marble quarries, and most caves are discovered during quarry works and finally destroyed by the quarries. There are also a few caves of non karst origin developed in granites and sandstones. The area has only one show cave, Niedzwiedzia Cave in Kletno, which is rather huge and called the most beautiful cave in Poland.
The rocks in the are contain numerous different ores and coal, which were mined since the Middle Ages. On mountain is called Silberberg (silver mountain) because of its silver mining history, which actually ended centuries ago. The last mining era was caused by the search for uranium, which could found in some polymetallic seams. During the early Cold War the Soviets mined the uranium in the area.