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Bergbaumuseum und Besucherbergwerk Grube Günnersdorf

Bergbaumuseum Mechernich


Useful Information

Location: Mechernich/Euskirchen A1 Köln-Trier, exit Mechernich/Bad Münstereifel, B477 towards Mechernich, second roundabout turn left.
Open: All year Tue-Sat 14-16, Sun 11-16.
[2011]
Fee: Adults EUR 5,50, Children (6-16) EUR 6, Children (0-5) not allowed, Family (2+1) EUR 13, additional Children EUR 2.
Groups (7+): Adults EUR 4,50, Children (6-16) EUR 3.
[2011]
Classification:  Lead Mine
Light: electric
Dimension: T=9°C
Guided tours: D=90min.
Photography:  
Accessibility:  
Bibliography:  
Address: Bergbaumuseum und Besucherbergwerk Grube Günnersdorf, Bleibergstraße 6, Mechernich, Tel: +49-2443-48697, Fax: +49-2443-8204. E-mail: contact
As far as we know this information was accurate when it was published (see years in brackets), but may have changed since then.
Please check rates and details directly with the companies in question if you need more recent info.
Last update:$Date: 2015/08/30 21:53:19 $

History

 
~0earliest mining.
1394first written mention.
15th ctymining intensified.
1578first Bergordnung (mining law).
~1600mining ends.
1629mining revived by the investment of three merchants.
1860-1910heydays of the mining.
1928mine subsidized because of the Great Depression.
01-JAN-1937taken over by the Preussag.
1939closed because of Wolrd War II.
1947renovation started.
1953begin of production.
1957Grube Günnersdorf closed.
MAY-1995show mine opened to the public.

Geology

The Mechernicher Bleiberg (lead mountain of mechernich) is located at the northern rimof theEifel, between the cities Mechernich in the northeast and Kall in the southwest. The deposit has a size of11km long,1-2km wide and about 30m thick. Despite the low amount of metal in the raw ore below 2%, this equals about 100 Million tons of lead. This is about 5% of the world supply and makes this deposit the most important lead deposit of Germany. Nevertheless the price of lead on the world market is far too low to make mining profitable.

The deposit is a so-called epigenetic, secondary hydrothermal ore deposit. This means the ores originate from Devonian quartz dykes below the sandstones, which were formed by hydrothermal proceses. By the regional volcanism the energy was provided to create convection cells and transport the ore once again. But this time the ore was deposited in the main Buntsandstein, a thick layer of porous sand stone from the lower Triassic. The ores were redeposited various times, which changed their chemistry, sulfides were oxidized and and oxides were reduced. This rock has almost 40% of pores, so the lead ore was deposited in those pores and is now dispersed in the rock.

This form of ores is called Knotten (nodules), and the rock is called Knottensandstein. The nodules are between 1mm and 5mm in diameter, consisting of galena (PbS). The are often a combination of galena crystals with cerussite (PbCO3) crystals and some quartz grains from the sandstone.


Description

The Bergbaumuseum und Besucherbergwerk Grube Günnersdorf is dedicated to the 2000 years oflead mining on the Mechernicher Bleiberg (Mechernich lead mountain). The mining museum informs about the lead mining the Mechernich and in the area. The mining has a long history beginning with Celts and Romans. The local geology is explained, the mining and ore processing techniques during the different mining eras are explained. The local Knottensandstein was a strange kind of ore which required special techniques to process and refine the ore, which are a local specialty. The mining started open cast, but soon went underground.

There are theories the Celts started the mining in the area, after Celtic coins have been found in a shaft. But the remains from this time are sparse. Some more was found from Roman times, including the fragments of mining tools like troughs, lamps of pottery and lead, pipes made of clay, and the remains of canals with wooden walls.

Intensive mining started in the 15th century, with the invention called Beutelkorb. It was a simple but effictive way to process the ore. It is actually simply a sieve, which works with the fact that the ore nodules have a bigger diameter than the grains of the sandstone. So tehy are held by the sieve of thin rass wire or withe. The sieve was hold gy a sturdy wooden frame, 30cm x 45cm in size, with a wooden handle. This tool was used until the second half of the 19th century. The mining was done with a hammer and a special chisel which was 8cm wide and 25cm long. The mined rock was crushed underground and sieved, then only the nodules were transported to the surface. The mine operator was a so-called Eigenlöhner (self-employment) who mined his tiny claim and payed taxes (the tenth) on his findings. At first the mining was completely unregulated except for the tax, later a Bergordnung (mining law) was made.

This mining era ended at the end of the 16th century. The mines had reached a certain depth which resulted in an increas of ground water inside the mines. An adit, to transport the water out of the mine would have been necessary, but the self-employed miners did not have the necessary money. In 1629 the mining was revivived by three merchants, Dietmar Rath, Bartholomäus Brüggen and Johann Meinertzhagen. They acquired the mining permission and started to build an adit in 1630. They soon reached the ores and the adit finally had a lenth of 1,750m in 1650. Subsequently several other adits were built.

The heydays of the lead mining were between 1860 and 1910. Every miner produced 10 tons of ore daily and almost 4,500 people work for the mines. In the 1920s ore mining was in a crisis because of the Great Depression. From 1828 the Grube Günnersdorf was subsidized by the state, later it was taken over by the Preussag. But World War II stopped the mining and a power failure caused the flooding of the mine. It had to be renovated with much effort during the years 1947 to 1953. But only four years later it was closed again, after the price of lead on the world market had fallen substantially.

The show mine is well developed, but the trails are sandy. We recommend wrak clothes and sturdy shoes. Helmets are provided.


See also


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