The modern Slovenian Littoral is only a part of the former Österreichisches Küstenland (Austrian Littoral), as big parts now belong to Italy. The city of Trieste was the only sea port of the otherwise landlocked Austro-Hungarian-Empire. Probably you remember the scence from the movie Sissi where the Austrian Emperor visits his neighbor Venice and is greeted with annoyed silence. In the movie the situation is saved by the daughter, who runs to meet her mother, and the Italians, who love children, start cheering "Viva la mama!". This gives a is a good idea of the political situation, and as a result Italy fought quite hard for the territories they were convinced belonged rightfully to Italy during World War I. At the end of the war they owned the whole area and some part of Notrjanska. They lost most of it during World War II and during the creation of Yugoslavia, and while Yugoslavia existed there was a rather uncomfortable border between the two countries. However, modern Slovenia was able to reduce the conflict and today there are almost no conflicts left, both Italy and Slovenia belong to the EU and Schengen.
The geologic situation is quite impressive: the classical karst, the mountain ridge named karst, belongs to this area. There is an enormous amount of caves, numerous current and historical show caves, and a extraordinary hydrologic situation, with karst rivers draining almost 150 m below the surface and reappearing at the coast or under water.