Henan translates south of the Yellow River, the province is located south of the Yellow River (Huang He), the second largest river of China after the Yangtse. It is flat in the east and center, which is part of the North China Plain. The west is mountainous and has an abundance of mineral deposits.
Henan has 65 collieries produces 100 million tons of coal a year, which males the province a major coal producer of China. Henan is also a producer of thermal power in the country, with an installed generating capacity of 14.77 million kwh (2000). It also produces hydroelectric power, especially with the not yet completed Yellow River dam. Zhongyuan Oil Fields and Henan Oil Fields are considerable reserves of oil and natural gas.
Huge parts of the province are covered, by loess, a fine sand which is ideal to build underground dwelling. There are numerous cities with cave houses which are called yaodongs.