Useful Information

Location: 22km from Denizli, south-east Turkey. (37°57'N, 28°50'E)
Classification: Thermal springs with large ExplainRimstone Pools.
Dimension: T=35°C, 500 m asl Area: 2,500m in length and 500m in width.
Bibliography: Ekmekci, Gunay & Simsek: Morphology of the rimstone pools at Pamukkale, Western Turkey. Cave and Karst Science, Volume 22 Number 3 December 1995, BCRA.
As far as we know this information was accurate when it was published (see years in brackets), but may have changed since then.
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1969 a management plan was prepared and the area proposed as a national park.
1988 inscribed on the World Heritage List.


The antique city of Hierapolis was established by Eumenes II, King of Pergammon, during the second century and has its name from the wife of Telephos, Hyera, who established Pergammon. The city was the capital of Phrygia during the reign of Constantin the Great.

Near the antique city are the famous ExplainRimstone Pools of Pamukkale. Thermal springs at the hill built large pools of limestone (travertine), while running down about 100 m of height difference.

The pools gave Pamukkale its name, Pamukkale means cotton castle. They are rather huge, making steps of 1 to 6m, and mostly white with some other colours produced by small amounts of iron oxide.

The hot springs have been used for therapeutic purposes since Roman times. Until some years ago the pools have been intensively used for bathing. Unfortunately this caused enormous damage, as the skin oil, the dirt, the sweat of the people, and of course the used soap and shampoo, destoyed the natural pools.

Of course, it is not necessary to damage the pools, as many nearby hotels have thermal pools fed by the thermal springs.