Most of Turkeys' land surface is on Anatolia, a peninsula with the cost of the Black sea to the north and the Mediterranean Sea to the west and south. This area is mountainous, composed of mostly sedimentary rocks folded and fractured during the Alpine Orogeny. The country is part of the Alpine orogenic belt, which marks the border between the African and the European plate.
About 35% of Turkey is covered by carbonate rocks, most of them karstified. This orogeny and the following epirogenic movements have been important factors in karstification. The fractures are the paths of the water and the high relief is responsible for rain falls and for a decent downward slope resulting in erosional energy of the water.