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Geologic Time Scale

EonErasPeriodsEpochsAge (beginning)notes
Phanerozoic Cenozoic Quaternary Holocene (Recent)10000 yearsEnd of Ice Age
Pleistocene1.8 Ma 
Tertiary Pliocene 5 Ma 
Miocene 24 Ma 
Oligocene 34 Ma 
Eocene 55 Ma 
Palaeocene 65 MaMass extinction: dinosaurs, pterosaurs, and ammonites extinct
Mesozoic Cretaceous 141 MaAngiosperm plants, Mesozoic reptiles peak
Jurassic 205 MaFerns, cycads, ginkgos, ammonites
Triassic 215 MaMolluscs and reptiles dominant, dinosaurs, ichthyosaurs
Palaezoic Permian 298 MaTrilobites extinct, Amphibians and reptiles dominant land animals
Carboniferous 354 MaForaminiferans, corals, bryozoans, brachiopods, amphibians become more common
Devonian 410 MaCorals, brachiopods, ammonoids, crinoids, fishes and early land plants
Silurian 434 Maprimitive fish
Ordovician 490 MaGraptolites dominant, also trilobites, brachiopods, bryozoans, gastropods, bivalves, echinoids, crinoids,
Cambrian 545 MaMarine animals with mineralized shells appear: trilobites, echinoderms, brachiopods, molluscs, primitive graptolites, a variety of worms
Proterozoic Precambrian Vendian ~2500 Ma1st multi-celled organisms
Archean   ~4000 MaThe evolution of life, 1st one-celled organisms
Priscoan   ~4600 MaThe formation of the Earth's crust, Approx age of oldest rocks 3,800 Ma

Note: Ma=million years


See also


Main Index | Geology

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