Geology of Poland

Poland has been described as a flat, lowland country, but the alpine peaks, both granite and limestone, reach well over 2000 m in height. However, karst only accounts for 2.5% of Poland's land mass.

The main caving areas are to be found in the south of the country, partly in the Tatra Mountains which occupy the western end of the great Carpathian chain. The most extensive karstic region is that of Krokow - Wielun, where some potential caves have been covered with glacial deposits.

There are nearly 3000 recorded caves in Poland which are to be found mainly in limestone and dolomite or, more rarely, in gypsum and marble, and, very unusually, in rock salt. There are also pseudo karst caves which have developed in sandstone.

Text by Tony Oldham (2002). With kind permission.