Myanmar is known for precious and semi-precious stones, especially jade. The country has many government owned mining companies. Since 1994 private mining companies are also allowed. The mining is based on the Burmese granodiorite arch, which extends from the extreme Himalayas in the northeast along the Burmese-Indian border to the south. Then there are Precambrian-Paleozoic rocks in the southern Tenasserim and in the northeast Shan plateau.
For karst development the existence of limestone is essential. There are vast limestone areas on the Shan Plateau and in central Myanmar. The karst in the southern part of the country is in the stage of tower karst, so there are fertile plains with solitary karst towers.