The green heart of Italy, in the center of the country, and of the Apennines. The highest peak of Umbria is Mt. Vettore on the border to the Marche which is 2476 m asl. It is famous since Antiquity as a beautiful and fertile region, still it is today rather rural and has a population of less than 100/km². Its most famous son is San Francesco d'Assisi, the founder of the Fransiscan monk order.

This part of the country is dominated by volcanic geology. There are huge volcano field, often forming chains of circular lakes. There are hot springs and mineral water springs. The soft tufa of the volcanic eruptions was used for building artificial caves all over the area. Most important are the caves of Orvieto.