Chhattisgarh is a state in central India formed in 2000. The 10th largest state of India by area (135,194 km²) has a population of 20 Million people and the capital is Raipur. The northern part of the state is hilly, drained by the Rihand River, a tributary of the Ganges. The central part is a fertile plain with extensive rice cultivation, the upper basin of the Mahanadi and its tributaries. The southern part of the state lies on the Deccan plateau and is formed mostly by basaltic rocks.
Chhattisgarh is the richest State of India in terms of mineral wealth. It even has a Kimberlite pipe with diamonds. It has a big part of the coal deposits, all tin deposits, and a fifth of the iron ore of India. Other important deposits are coal, bauxite, limestone, dolomite and corundum. The combination of coal, high quality iron ore and limestone in proximity makes it an ideal location for iron production.
The state is due to its carbonate deposits a cave hotspot in India, which otherwise consists mostly of crystalline rocks. Most public caves are located in Kanger Valley National Park, a Biosphere Reserve preserving one of the last almost virgin forests of the Indian peninsula. The 34 km long and 6 km wide valley is located in the transition zone between Moist Peninsular Valley Sal Forest and South Indian Tropical Moist Deciduous Forest. The area is populated by indegneous people which are called tribal people.