The Territory of Christmas Island belongs to Australia and is located in the Indian Ocean, 2,600km from Perth in Western Australia. The island is mined for guano for many years, actually the only important mineral deposit of the island. Some 1,600 residents live in a number of settlement areas on the northern tip of the island. Except for the open cast guano mining the human disturbance has been minimal, much of the island is covered by primary rainforest. 63% of its surface is a National Park, to protect the flora and fauna with its high level of endemism. The island is famous for the migration of millions of red crabs, which make roads impassable.