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Caves as Typesites

A typesite (type locale, locus typicus) is the place, where a particular archaeological culture was discovered first. This is a common technique amongst archaeologists: when they find new artifacts, which are important enough to call them a new culture, this culture is named after the place. 150 years ago archaeology started to discover stone age tools in French caves. Soon all over central Europe caves were excavated, and so many cultures which are today well known, were named after the caves. Many of the caves are today show caves, and so we tried to make a little list.

Name Type Time Period Region Description Wikipedia Typesite
Acheuléen industry 1,000,000 to 200,000 BP Lower Palaeolithic across Africa and much of Asia and Europe The dominant technology for the vast majority of human history, characterized by distinctive oval and pear-shaped handaxes.  Acheulean - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia St. Acheul, France. Gravel pits at the river Somme.
Azilian industry around 10,000 BP terminal Palaeolithic and early Mesolithic northern Spain and southern France Azilian points are microliths with rounded retouched backs, crude flat bone harpoons and pebbles with abstract decoration.  Azilian - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia  Grotte du Mas-d'Azil
Magdalénien culture 18,000 and 10,000 BP Upper Palaeolithic western Europe, from Portugal to Poland "L'Age du Renne" (the age of the reindeer), synonymous with reindeer hunters. Extensive evidence for the hunting of red deer, horse and other large mammals. Characterised by regular blade industries struck from carinated cores.  Magdalenian  Abri la Madelene
Mousterian industry 300,000 to 30,000 BP Middle Palaeolithic all over unglaciated Europe, Middle East, and North Africa Handaxes, racloirs and points, sometimes a Levallois technique or another Prepared-core technique employed.  Mousterian  Abri du Moustier
Sauveterrian culture 7,000-8,000 BC Mesolithic western and central Europe Geometric microliths and backed points on micro-blades. Wood working tools are notably missing. Evidence for ritual burial.  Sauveterrian - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Abris at Sauveterre-la-Lémance (Lot-et-Garonne)
Dzibilchaltun Maya civilization  Dzibilchaltun - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia  Dzibilchaltún Cenote
Neanderthal man 230,000 to 29,000 BP Middle Paleolithic The Neanderthal (Homo neanderthalensis) was a species of the Homo genus that inhabited Europe and parts of western Asia.  Neanderthal - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia  Neanderthal
Cro-Magnon man 35,000 to 10,000 BP Upper Paleolithic  Cro-Magnon man - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia  Abri de Cro-Magnon

See also

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