Near Benaoján, Andalucia.
Ronda direction Seville, C339 12km, turn left into minor road MA 501 direction
Benaoján, a few km behind turn right.
|Open:||Winter daily 10-13, 16-17. Summer daily 10-13, 16-18.|
|Fee:||Adults EUR 6. |
|Light:||none, paraffin lamps provided.|
|Dimension:||L=2,300m, A=670m asl, T=15°C.|
|Guided tours:||D=60min., L=500m.|
J. A. Bullón Giménez (1977):
La Cueva de la Pileta,
Ipek. Jahrbuch für Prähistorische & Ethnographische Kunst, Jahrgang 1977.
J. A. Bullón Giménez (1975): Eiszeitmalerei in Südspanien - Cueva de la Pileta, Almogaren IV/1973, Graz 1975, 209-212 ()
|Address:||Bullón family, propietor of the Cave, Benaoján, Tel.: +34-952-167343.|
|Last update:||$Date: 2011/12/13 08:50:00 $|
|1905||discovered by José Bullón Lobato.|
|1912||first archaeological excavation by H. Obermaier.|
|26-NOV-1911||The Saturday Review of London announces the discovery of cave paintings in a cave near Benaoján.|
|1912||exploration by a team led by Abbe Breuil.|
|1915||monograph La Pileta a Benaojan published by the Institute of Paleontology, Paris.|
|MAR-1924||present access to the cave by Tomás Bullón Garcia.|
|25-APR-1924||declared National Monument.|
|14-APR-1933||Gallery of the Skeleton discovered.|
|1935||Venus of La Pileta discovered.|
|1963||road to the cave opened.|
|14-MAR-1992||new gallery of 250m length discovered.|
Cueva de la Pileta is a painted cave with numerous drawings. Most of them a lines or patterns, but there are also human figures and animals, painted in black, red and yellow. Probably the most exceptional drawing is called El Pez. Located in the deepest part of the cave the 1.50m long drawing shows a fish, which is interpreted as a flatfish (Pleuronectiformes), probably a European Flounder (Platichthys flesus L.). It has both eyes on one side of the body and the form of the fins is typical. Other findings from this cave include some of the oldest pieces of pottery ever found in Europe and human bones.
From the modern entrance the underground passage divides into two branches. To the right, low galleries lead to the Sala de las Grajas (the Rooks' Hall), El Labarinto (the Maze), El Coro (the Choir), and El Lago de Arcilla (Clay Lake). The left branch is bigger and more interesting. In the central part is the location of the famous paintings, from the Thermopylae Pass, across the Sala de la Reina Mora (the Moorish Queen's Hall) to the Sala del Pez (Fish Hall). The Sala del Santuario (Sanctuary Hall) is decorated with a pregnant mare, an archer and other figures.
The cave La Pileta was discovered in 1905 by José Bullón Lobato and stayed in the ownership of the Bullón family until today. The present owner is José Tomás Bullón Almagro, the fourth generation of the family working to explore and protect the cave. The most important discoveries in the cave were made by the son of the discoverer, Tomás Bullón Garcia.
La Pileta is the name of a mountain ridge, a karst area between Montejaque and Cortés de la Frontera with some foothills towards Grazalema and Ubrique (Cádiz). It reaches heights of 1,400m asl. The cave is located in a part of this area called Las Mesas, high plains belonging to the town Benaoján. It has three entrances, the one to the south is called Cueva de las Vacas, then the abyss Sima de las Grajas, where the cave was discovered, and to the east the present entrance of the show cave.
José Bullón Lobato discovered the cave when he was looking for fertilizer, in form of bird dung, and entered the Sima de los Murciélagos (Abyss of the Bats), which is today called Sima de las Grajas. He descended 30m to the floor, where he found black marks on the walls and the floor. He explored some passages including the Balcón de Tomás and the Sala del Pez (Hall of the Fish). He found numerous potsherds and pottery and much more paintings. Most of of the paintings are lines and symbols, so he called the cave Cueva de los Letreros (Cave of the Letters).
The cave is developed in a rather simple way. There is a trail through the cave but no light. The guide provides some lamps, but there are not enough lamps for every member of the group. We recommend good walking shoes and a torch.
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