Vernon Atkinson and Anne Atkinson (1995):
Undara Volcano And Its Lava Tubes,
85 pp over a 100 colour photos.
This is a super coffee table book on Lava Caves, both at Undara in North Queensland, Australia and in Hawaii. Gives a good insight into how these caves are formed.
|Address:||Undara Lava Tubes, Lava Lodge, Undara, via Mt. Surprise Qld 4871. Gerry Collins, Proprietor, Tel: +61-7-0-97-1411, Fax: +61-7-0-97-1450. Guy Anderson, Manager.|
|As far as we know this information was accurate when it was published (see years in brackets), but may have changed since then.|
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|Last update:||$Date: 2014/07/21 08:06:51 $|
|1940s||recommended for reservation as a national park by the National Parks Association of Queensland.|
|1989||Undara Crater National Park created with an area of 17,600ha covering the crater and lava tubes.|
Undara Lava Tubes were formed about 190.000 years ago, when Undara Volcanoe - the major crater in the McBride Volcanic Province - erupted. Its molten lava was flowing down a dry river bed and soon formed a lava tube. As the eruption stopped, the lava drained out of the tubes leaving a series of long tunnels.
The word "Undara" is an Aboriginal word meaning "a long way", and actually one of the lava flows from Undara extends 160 kilometers making it the longest known single lava flow on Earth. Another tube - formed by part of the flow - extends for more than 100km and several sections are accessible.
During the eruption cycle, the Undara volcano spewed forth 23 km³ of lava covering 1550 km². So far, 68 separate sections of cave have been identified from over 300 lava tube roof collapses.
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